ABOUT THE AUTHORS
BIBLIOGRAPHY Updated March 30, 2009
The United Nation's Secretary-General's reports provide details about the progress made by the mission as well as the challenges the United Nations troops face. The last report dates from August 2007. Report of the Secretary-General on the United Nations Stabilization Mission in Haiti (August 2007)
The World Report on Human Development (2007) examines the main indicators of human development such as life expectancy, education and quality of life. The report contains important indicators on the equality between women and men, income equality, human rights and political freedom.
The most recent report of the Human Right Watch (2006) organisation is about the major events that happened in 2006, with special attention paid to the elections, the violence, the abuse committed by police forces and in the penitentiary system as well as the persecution of human rights defenders.
The 2007 Amnesty International report contains a section on context as well as an analysis of the situation of women in Haiti, a section on the subject of the persecution of human rights defenders, another on homicides, detention conditions, impunity and disarmament.
Transparency International offers an analysis of the main problems in Haiti in terms of transparency and accountability in its report, Corruption Perceptions Index 2008 (2008).
The American State Department's report on Human Rights, Country Report on Human Right Practices evaluates the degree to which Haiti respects human rights. The report offers the legal and institutional framework for each right as well as concrete examples of violation. 2008.
The Report on International Religious Freedom from the United States State Department provides a detailed explanation of the situation in Haiti in terms of religious freedom, including the legislative and constitutional contexts, as well as the situation in the field. (International Religious Freedom Report 2007 by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, US State Department. Last update 14 September 2007.)
The Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS) offers a series of reports on Haiti as well as numerous resources, including speeches and reference tools linked to the theme. Edmond Mulet's speech entitled "Centre for Strategic and International Studies Round Table with Edmond Mulet " explores the challenges facing Haiti including institutional weaknesses, the inability to deal with international aid, security and the situation of the rule of law which is improving but at an extremely slow rate, disarmament, etc. (January 2007)
The CSIS report entitled "Hispaniola's Second Chance" explores the possibility of reinforcing the good relations between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, including reducing the tensions related to the migratory flow between the two countries. (Danilo Antonio Contreras, Center for Strategic and International Studies 15 June 2006.)
The CSIS report entitled "Jatropha and Peacebuilding in Haiti" explores Haiti's energy situation and the potential advantages that the production of biodiesel could have for the country. The author maintains that the production of biodiesel, even on a small scale, could palliate part of the demand for gas in the transportation sector and in the residential sector so as to operate several generators. (Dr. Johanna Mendelson Forman Senior Associate Center for Strategic and International Studies Washington, D.C., 13 March 2007.)
In the report written for the American Congress, entitled "Haiti's Development Needs and a Statistical Overview of Conditions of Poverty", Maureen Taft-Morales and Demond Alexander Drummer examine the situation of poverty in Haiti as well as the short-, mid- and long-term strategies that were proposed by the government and the international donors, with the aim being to eradicate poverty. The report provides indicators and useful statistics so as to evaluate the breadth of poverty in Haiti. (CRS report for Congress, 30 May 2007.)
This article by Robert Perito and Jasenka Jocic "Paper Versus Steel: Haiti's Challenge of Constitutional Reform" examines the complexity of the Haitian Constitution, written in 1987. The specific roles of Parliament, of the President, of local governments, of military forces and of the Senate are addressed, as well as the possibility of actually applying the different articles of the document and the necessity to amend certain articles of the constitution. (Robert Perito and Jasenka Jocic, US Institute of Peace.)
The article "Haiti's Drug problem" examines the problems linked to the transportation of narcotics on Haitian territory and the incapacity of the Haitian government to face this important challenge. The author mentions the repercussions on the political stability, the judicial system, the capacity and legitimacy of the government, security, economic advancements, investments and tourism. (Robert Perito and Greg Maly, US Institute of Peace.)
In his article, "'Naje Pou Soti': Legal Obstacles Facing Haiti's Preval" Brian Jr. Concannon analyses the challenges faced by the new President René Préval after his electoral victory in February 2006. He concludes that the operation of parliament, the deficiencies of the judicial system and of the police would be considerable obstacles to the economic recovery and the establishment of social reforms. (Jurist, March 2006.)
The report "Haiti: Hope for Peace" examines the events that occurred during the first year of René Préval's presidency, at both the political and economic levels and concludes that aside from the important advances accomplished throughout this year, the challenges remain important and the collaboration of the international community is vital. (Robert Perito, US Institute of Peace.)
The report "National Coalition for Haitian. Silencing a People: The Destruction of Civil Society in Haïti." explores how the Haitian army attempted to destroy the civil society after having removed President Jean-Berthrand Aristide in 1991 and what the effects of this were. America's Watch Committee (U.S.), 1993.The report "Can the Diaspora Solve Haiti's Enduring Social Conflict?" analyses the potential of seeing the Haitian Diaspora contribute to Haiti's economic and political recovery. Noted among the obstacles in place are a rigid system of social stratification, the absence of governmental institutions which offer educational and health services, the impossibility of accessing credit which permits entrepreneurs to establish businesses and finally, the corrupt and inefficient judicial system. (Robert Perito, US Institute of Peace.)
Economist Intelligence Unit is compiling a synthesis of the political, economic and social situation in Haiti in its report Haiti Country Profile 2007. The report is updated every month. The economic section of the reports is particularly complete.
Freedom House offers a detailed look at the historical evolution of Haiti with a particular emphasis on the change of government and the presidency of Jean-Berthrand Aristide. Haiti Country Report. (2007)
International Crisis Group is producing historical information on the Haitian conflict, in particular on the circumstances under which President Aristide was removed. Conflict History: Haiti most recent update in April 2006.
The Library of Congress report, A Country Study: Haiti. provides a complete portrait of Haiti, including an analysis of the political, economic and social situation. The historical section is detailed and covers the revolution, independence, the American colonisation, periods of political instability and the dictatorship and more recent history. (2005)
In her report entitled Cycle of Conflict and Intervention in Haiti (1992-2001) Aleisha Arnusch analyses the roots of the Haitian conflict as well as the various international interventions which took place between 1992 and 2001. Canada's role in these interventions is also explored. (Pearson Peacekeeping Centre, September 2006.)
Corten, André. Misère, religion et politique en Haïti : diabolisation et mal politique. Paris, Karthala, 2001, 245p.
Corten, André. L'état faible : Haïti et République dominicaine. Montréal: Éditions du CIDIHCA, 1989.
Fatton, Robert Jr. Haiti's Predatory Republic: The Unending Transition to Democracy. Boulder, Co., Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2002, XIV-256p.
James, CLR. The Black Jacobins: Toussaint L'Ouverture and the San Domingo Revolution. New York: Vintage Books, 2nd edition, 1989, 448p.
Lundahl, Mats. Politics or Markets? Essays on Haitian Underdevelopment. Routledge (London and New York), 1992, xvi + 519 pp.Wargny, Christophe. Haïti n'existe pas : 1804-2004 : deux cents ans de solitude. Paris : Ed. Autrement, 2004, 190p.
The official Web site of MINUSTAH gives details on the events that led up to its creation, the mandate of the mission, of its composition and of contributing countries. Several documents are also accessible from this site.
Secretary General's report on the United Nations Mission for the Stabilisation of Haiti, 27 August 2008.
Resolution 1840 (2008) Adopted by the Security Council at its 5993th session, 14 October 2008.
The last resolution of the UN's Security Council Security Council Extends Stabilization Mission in Haiti Until 15 October 2008, Unanimously Adopting Resolution 1780 (2007) , the last resolution of the UN's Security Council, states the conditions under which the UN's stabilisation mission will be prolonged until 15 October 2008.
The report for the Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs of the UN (OCHA) entitled Haiti September 2006: Humanitarian Situation Report provides an update on the situation in Haiti, and more specifically in terms of security, the electoral process and the humanitarian situation. (2006).
The United Nations Development Programme, in its United Nation's Master Plan on Development Aid 2009-20011 Haiti report presents the structure for the United Nation's Master Plan on Development Aid as well as the objectives, strategic axes and programs put into place in Haiti.
David Morin, La Francophonie et le volet civil des opérations de paix de l'ONU: Le cas de la MINUSTAH, Study undertaken on the request of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Francophone research network on peace operations, to be printed in Montréal, 2009.
The Report of the Economic and Social Council's Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti contains conclusions from the UN's Economic and Social Council Ad Hoc Advisory Group on Haiti. It discusses in general terms the economic and social situation in the country and comments in detail on the need for a reinforcement of the capabilities so as to strengthen the institutional structure of the Haitian society. It also analyses the vital questions concerning the planning of the development and the coordination of the aide to Haiti.
In his article "The goal of democracy in international police assistance programs", Otwin Marenin explores the changing of police standards and the international community's contribution to this evolution. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, Vol. 21 (1), 159 - 177. 1998.
In his article Haiti: Haiti: International Force or National Compromise?, Ian Martin Examines the role the international community can play in putting an end to the political instability that has been reigning in Haiti for several decades. Journal of Latin American Studies. Vol. 31, No. 3 (Oct., 1999), pp. 711-734.
In the article "Enforcement of Democracy in Haiti", E. Mobekk analyses the efforts made in Haiti by the international community in the democratization and governance sectors and concludes that the lack of institutionalisation played a large role in the political instability that has lasted until recently. Democratization, Volume 8 (3), Fall 2001, pp. 173-188(16).
In her article "Building "low-intensity" democracy in Haiti: the OAS contribution", Yasmine Shamsie explores the OAS's initiatives in Haiti's democratization sector and the promotion of free-trade in the region, as well as the relation between these two positions. Third World Quarterly, 2004, vol.25 n°6, p.1097-1115.
In From Timor-Leste to Darfur: New Initiative for enhancing UN Civilian Policing Capacity, Joshua G. Smith, Victoria K. Holt and William J. Durch explore the UN's missions' contributions to the reform of the security system as well as the performance of the United Nation's police forces (UNPOL). (Henry L. Stimson Centre, 2007.)
In her report entitled Haiti: Developments and U.S. Policy Since 1991 and Current Congressional Concerns Maureen Taft-Morales takes into account the relationship between the United States and Haiti as well as the strategic importance of Haiti for its neighbours to the North. (Congressional Research Service, January 2005.)
In his article "Searching for OAS/UN task-sharing opportunities in Central America and Haiti" Joaquin Tacsan analyses the coordination efforts made by the UN and the OAS in Haiti. Third World Quarterly, Volume 18, Number 3, 1 September 1997. pp. 489-508.
The Coordination of MINUSTAH with Different Organizations
The CARICOM website provides information on the programs undertaken by the organisation in coordination with the UN and the other international and regional organizations in Haiti.
The European Union's website, EU Relations with Haiti offers information on programs carried out in coordination with the UN and the other international and regional organizations in Haiti. It includes the EU's strategy in Haiti as well as the development programs implemented.
In her article "NGOs, Conflict Management and Peacekeeping", Pamela Aall. International Peacekeeping analyses the level of coordination between the UN and non-governmental organizations that work in countries which have peacekeeping missions in place. (2000).
Childers, Erskine and Brian Urquhart. Renewing the United Nations System. Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Uppsala, Sweden, 1994, 213 pp.
Kumar, Chetan. Building Peace in Haiti. Lynne Rienner Publishers. 1998. 95 pages.
Malone, David. Decision-Making in the UN Security Council: The Case of Haiti, 1990-1997. Oxford University Press, 1998.
Shamsie, Yasmine and Andrew S. Thompson. Haiti: Hope for a Fragile State. Wilfrid Laurier Press, Waterloo, 2006. 148 pages.
Von Einsiedel, Sebastian and David Malone. Peace and Democracy for Haiti: A UN Mission Impossible? 2006.
In its report entitled Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration: What role should the EU play in Haiti?, Action Aid analyses the situation in Haiti after the 2006 election and presents some recommendations on the role that the EU should play in the demobilisation and reintegration sectors. October 2006.
Isabelle Fortin, Yves-François Pierre, Haïti et la réforme de la PNH, North-South Institute, Ottawa, January 2009.
In its report Consolidating Stability in Haiti the International Crisis Group examines the efforts made by the Haitian government and the international community so as to stabilise Haiti and the sectors in which improvement is still required. (18 July 2007).
In its report Haiti: Justice Reform and the Security Crisis the International Crisis Group offers an interesting perspective on the continuing challenges in the Haitian judicial system. (2007)
The goal of The OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform is to help donor countries to conceive support programs for the Security System Reform which are both efficient and long-lasting. (Report 978-92-64-037397, 2007)
In his report Securing Haiti's Transition: Reviewing Human Insecurity and the Prospects for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration, Robert Muggah offers a complete analysis of the problems that affect human safety in Haiti, including weapons trafficking, organized crime, security system reforms and demobilisation programs. (Geneva: Small Arms Survey, 2005)
In his article Great expectations: (dis)integrated DDR in Sudan and Haiti, Robert Muggah examines the UN's role in the demobilisation and reintegration process in Haiti and Sudan and compares the different approaches taken in these two circumstances. (ODI, Humanitarian Practice Network (ODI-HPN), 31 March 2007)
Schnabel, Albert and Hans-Georg Ehrhart. Security Sector Reform and Post-Conflict Peacebuilding. Shibuya-ku, Tokyo, Japan: United Nations University Press, 2005.
The United Nations offers a review of the demobilisation and reintegration initiatives implemented in Haiti as well as a complete analysis of the current situation in Programs of Demobilization and Reintegration in Haiti (DDR) .
The United Nation's Security Council's document Haitian National Police Reform Plan presents strategies put into place by the United Nations with the aim being to reform the Haitian National Police. (Report S/2006/726, 2006).
The Swedish government's document, Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration (DDR) in Peace Agreements and UN Peacekeeping Mandates analyses the manner in which the United Nations has treated the theme of Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) in the peace agreements, the mandates, the programming and the UN's reports. Haiti is used as a case study for this analysis.
Women War Peace offers a series of documents and analyses on the theme of equality between men and women in Haiti (and throughout the world).
The United Nation's Web site on demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) contains a section on the role of women in the Haitian conflict and the importance of including them in all DDR initiatives. Haiti: Women Association with Armed Violence.
The United Nation's Population Fun has a specific section on the programming that affects Haitian women and is entitled The National Consultation.[translation] The National Consultation on Specific Violence Against Women [translation] is a tripartite coordination scheme of government/civil society/international agencies set up in 2004 to facilitate coordination between different government and non-governmental initiatives, both national and international, in the field of the fight against specific violence towards women, in particular violence of a sexual nature.
Department on the Status of Women and Women's Rights (MCFDF)[translation] contains documentation on the initiatives of the Haitian government as well as statistics and information on the status of women in Haiti.
The United Nations Development Fund for Women offers a series of reports on the status of women and equality between women and men in the Caribbean region. (2003)
Doctors without Borders Haiti produces a report on annual activity as well as certain themed reports that provide detail on the health situation in Haiti.
The World Health Organization in Haiti offers statistics and detailed information in the context of health in Haiti, including a review of health coverage in Haiti, of epidemics, of health risks for the public and of the inequalities in terms of access to services.
Pan-american Health Organization offers statistics and detailed information on various illnesses that affect the population of the Americas. The organization also compiles detailed statistics that help evaluate if members reach the objectives of the organization.
USAID Health offers an annual report on the bill of health in Haiti. This report includes information and statistics on demographics, socio-economic factors, family planning, maternal and child health, HIV/AIDS prevention as well as contagious diseases.
The UNESCO Haïti Web site has educational resources for teachers as well as researchers. This resource includes statistics, reports, publications, information on curriculum and a bibliography.
The National Coalition for Haitian Rights website offers information and reports on children's right in Haiti, including information on the restavèk phenomenon that affects thousands of children in Haiti.
In its report, Environmental Vulnerability in Haiti, USAID does a thorough analysis of sources of potable water, soil and biofuel and provides several recommendations which aim for a more appropriate development strategy. (USAID: April 2007).
The Haitian Environmental Foundation (FHE) got funding from the European Union to implement Dialogue Policy and Environnemet Initiative. This initiative's main objective is to contribute to the establishment of the political dialogue and of a durable base for collaboration between the different members in the political sector and civil society. (Mediaterre, March 2007)
World Food Program Haiti offers a review of the situation in Haiti in terms of food security and the programs that organization offers which are meant to palliate the needs which still remain significant.
In its Profile section, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization provides a glimpse into the nature and amount of resources dedicated to agriculture, such as water, soil, environment, irrigation, etc. Its section, Statistics offers statistics on malnutrition, daily food consumption, the nature of the Haitian diet, as well as food production and infant nutrition.
The website for the Convention on Biological Diversity has useful information on the use of forests and governmental initiatives to set up protection zones in Haiti. Haiti - Description, Status and Trends of Biodiversity
The document, 2005-2006 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey provides information and statistics on themes such as health, family planning, HIV/AIDS, nutrition and demography.
In the article, "From Hidden Hand to Heavy Hand: Sugar, the State, and Migrant Labor in Haiti and the Dominican Republic" Samuel Martinez explores the migration dynamics which exist between Haiti and the Dominican Republic, as well as the way in which these dynamics have evolved over the past century. (Latin American Research Review, Vol. 34, No. 1. 1999, pp. 57-84.)
The International Crisis Group's report entitled Peacebuilding in Haiti: Including Haitian from Abroad Latin America/Caribbean explores how the Haitian Diaspora could contribute to the institutionalisation and economic growth of Haiti. (Report N°24, 14 December 2007.)
Catanese, Anthony V. Haitians: Migration and Diaspora. Westview Press, Boulder Colorado. 1999.
Dewind, Josh and David H. Kinley. Aiding migration: the impact of international development assistance on Haiti. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press, 1988.196 p.
Coulter, Christopher and David Johan. The Power of Exit: Haitian Migration to the United States. 1995.Bridget Wooding and Richard Moseley-Williams (2005). Les immigrants haïtiens et leurs descendants en République Dominicaine. Catholic Institute for International Relations (CIIR).
Alterpresse http://www.alterpresse.org/Radio Métropole Site http://www.metropolehaiti.com/metropole/liste_une_fr.php?d=1802083