THE UNITED NATIONS IN AFGHANISTAN
Updated: 30 March 2009
Lakdar Brahimi, the Secretary General's Special Envoy to Afghanistan from 1997 to 1999, arrived in Kabul on 21 December 2001. He and his staff absorbed and replaced the former UN mission in the country, the United Nations Special Mission to Afghanistan, and established the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA). UNAMA has overall responsibility for all UN activities in the country.
Its mandate, which had to be re-examined after the completion of the Bonn Process, was defined in Security Council resolutions 1662 (2006) and 1747 (2007) and elaborated on in resolution 1806 (2008). On March 23 2009, the Security Council extended the UNAMA's mandate in resolution 1868. UNAMA is tasked to lead the international civilian efforts to:
UNAMA's current mandate will end in March 2010.
UNAMA is headed by Mr. Kai Eide, the Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan (SRSG). He succeeded Lakdar Brahimi (2002-2004), Jean Arnault (2004-2006) and Tom Koenigs (2006-2007).
The Mission consists of two main pillars, headed by the SRSG's two deputies. The first is a political pillar, monitoring the political and human rights situation in the country. It also maintains contact with Afghan leaders and the international community. The second pillar is focusing on relief, recovery, and reconstruction. There are currently more than 1,200 staff, most of them Afghan (209 international civilians, 959 local civilians, 16 military observers, 3 civilian police, 30 UN volunteers). The headquarters is in Kabul, with 9 provincial and 8 regional offices throughout Afghanistan.
Review of UNAMA's role
Initially, UNAMA endeavored to adopt a 'light footprint' approach, as suggested by its first SRSG Brahimi in 2002. The UN's role was supposed to be to provide the government with support and assistance - not to seek to govern in its place. However, in the absence of leadership from the Afghan government and in view of ineffective international development efforts, an increasing number of countries decided that a high-profile representative was required to take a more prominent role in coordinating donor activities and guide reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan. Various countries expressed their desire for a stronger UN role, possibly by appointing a high-level UN envoy who would will play such a coordinating role.
On 10 March 2008, Kai Eide was appointed Special Representative of the Secretary-General for Afghanistan and Head of UNAMA. During his first few months in office, he focused on reaching out to all key players and engaging them in discussions on a more coherent approach, notably through a number of visits to countries such as the US, Canada, Iran and Pakistan as well as his participation in the NATO summit in April 2008 and the international donor conference in June 2008. Having received strong verbal support from all sides, he believes that he possesses the tools needed for a successful UN role in Afghanistan. While pushing donors to accept being coordinated and move from process-oriented to delivery-oriented consultation mechanisms, he also recognizes the urgent need for the Afghan government to combat corruption and improve governance.
UNAMA's role has been harshly criticised in a January 2009 report by the Afghanistan Rights Monitor (ARM), a newly established Kabul-based rights watch dog. According to the report, entitled "The Plight of the Afghan People in 2008", the UN and other aid agencies have failed in reaching and delivering aid to the neediest of communities. The report went further in accusing the UN and other aid organizations of retreating to the security zones in Kabul and other major cities. It urged the UN to maintain its neutrality and venture into the more volatile areas of the country in order to assist those affected by the ongoing conflict. ARM also states that civilian casualties are underreported and that the problem is worse than it has been made out to be. The report estimates that about 3,917 civilians were killed, over 6,800 were wounded and about 120,000 were forced out of their homes. These figures are said to be higher than those reported by the Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC) and UNAMA. All sides in the conflict were charged with "repeated and systematic" violations of international human rights law, the Geneva Conventions and Afghanistan's laws regarding conflict. However, the UN has strenuously refuted these allegations. Dan McNorton, a UNAMA spokesman responded to the reports by saying that the report overlooked UNAMA's regional and provincial presence. He cited the thousands of road missions, immunization programs, returnee assistance projects, food assistance and disaster relief efforts that the UN has undertaken. The report was labelled as "superficial and deeply uninformed." Despite this dismissive response from the UN spokesman greater analysis is needed to ensure that aid is reaching the neediest of Afghans and that the UN and other organizations are having the greatest possible impact on the majority of Afghans.
Discussions about a separate OCHA office
In recent months aid agencies providing assistance in Afghanistan have been advocating for the re-establishment of an independent UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) outside the UNAMA mission structure. They believe that the neutrality and independence of humanitarian assistance is at risk as long as its coordination is part of the mandate of an integrated UN mission with a clear political mandate to support the Afghan government. UNAMA, however, is concerned that establishing a separate OCHA office could be counter-productive because it would fragment the coordination effort at a time when donors are trying to improve coherence.
In addition to UNAMA, there are nearly twenty other UN agencies and programs operating in Afghanistan. In 2006, all UN agency program plans were harmonized to operate on a three year cycle, from January 2006 to January 2008.
Related Non-UN Agencies: IOM
UNDP is the UN's global development network, advocating for change and connecting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better life. In Afghanistan, the Program operates within the framework of the integrated UNAMA mission and within the United Nations Development Assistance Framework (UNDAF). Together with the Government of Afghanistan, it is focusing on three development areas:
Faced with a long reconstruction process, national government services lack sufficient resources to meet all priorities. UNDP focuses on strengthening institutional capacity to enforce the rule of law and provide public administration services to Afghans. In its support to public administration, UNDP provides public sector management, information management, aid coordination and tracking of resources.
Good governance is one of the most important factors in eradicating poverty and promoting development. In line with the Bonn Agreement and the Millennium Development Declaration, UNDP is supporting the Government of Afghanistan in its efforts to consolidate its institutions, to strengthen democracy and the rule of law, and to promote human rights and gender equality.UNDP is providing training, employment and investment opportunities that assist Afghan communities to continue the physical reconstruction of their country, to remove the remnants of war and reintegrate former combatants, and to face future human development challenges.
UNHCR - United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
Since major repatriation operations to Afghanistan resumed in 2002, more than 5 million Afghans have returned to their country, mostly from Pakistan and Iran. Another half million internally displaced people have gone back home. However, approximately 3 million Afghans still remain in the two neighboring countries alone. Localized conflict continues to displace some communities within Afghanistan, while poverty and lack of job opportunities oblige many Afghans to seek employment abroad.
After the huge return movements of 2002-2004, the pace of repatriation has dropped in the last three years. Nevertheless, Afghanistan has been UNHCR's largest repatriation operation worldwide for six consecutive years. Voluntary repatriation will continue to be the preferred durable solution. In 2007, UNHCR has adjusted its support for initial travel and reintegration assistance to bring it more into line with recent cost increases. It will continue to support a shelter program - with an additional 10,000 units in 2007 - that has built new homes for more than a million returnees since 2002. Cooperation with the Afghan authorities to allocate land for poor and homeless returnees and local people will be intensified. Moreover, UNHCR will continue to work closely with the Afghan government and its international partners to identify new opportunities to address employment, livelihood, and social sector requirements.
UNICEF - United Nations Children's Emergency Fund
UNICEF's priorities in Afghanistan are education, child health, and the demobilization of child soldiers. In 2006, UNICEF will provide $61 million to various ministries for health, education, and protection of women's and children's rights. This is part of a new three year deal signed in February 2006 with the respective ministries. Specifically, UNICEF will focus on community-based education, curriculum development and teacher training, women's literacy, hygiene courses, immunization, training of maternal health workers, and policy-level support for child labour and trafficking initiatives. UNICEF has shifted from implementing projects to supporting government agencies in implementing projects. UNICEF has also been heavily involved in disaster relief.
UNICEF Afghanistan website:
WFP - World Food Programme
Since the establishment of a transitional government in June 2002, WFP's operations have shifted from emergency assistance to rehabilitation and recovery. The current program aims to provide 520,000 metric tonnes of food aid to 6.6 million Afghans between January 2006 and December 2008 - at a cost of US$ 372 million. On average, WFP will distribute food to 3.5 million people each year, primarily in remote, food-insecure rural areas. In 2007 along, the UN expects to deliver about 225,000 tonnes of food.
WFP will target chronically poor and food-insecure families, schoolchildren, teachers, illiterate people, tuberculosis patients and their families, internally displaced persons and ex-combatants - with a particular emphasis on vulnerable women and girls. WFP will provide assistance to its beneficiaries through a range of relief and recovery activities, including food for work, food for training and food for education. These projects will be implemented in partnership with the Afghan government, other UN agencies (notably UNICEF, UNESCO, WHO, FAO and UNHCR), Community Development Councils and non-governmental organisations.
In the recent past, WFP has increasingly been affected by insecurity in its areas of operation. Especially in southern Afghanistan, its convoys carrying food donations have repeatedly coming under attack. The Program has lost more food between October 2006 and October 2007 through those attacks than in the previous three years. About 1,000 tonnes of wheat, beans, cooking oil and fortified biscuits have been waylaid or vanished since January. About 30 attacks on local Afghan trucks moving the food between volatile southern districts are blamed on insurgents who resent foreign intervention, or sometimes on bandits who later sell donations meant to sustain the poorest families.
FAO - Food and Agriculture Organization
"The mandate of FAO in Afghanistan is to support agricultural and environmental rehabilitation and assist the country to become a food secure and self-reliant nation in accordance with the principles of the National Development Framework of the Afghan Government." FAO works in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, the Ministry of Irrigation, Water Resources and the Environment and the Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development. The main office of FAO Afghanistan is in Kabul. As agriculture and animal husbandry support an estimated 85% of Afghanistan's population, the FAO established a Food, Agriculture and Animal Husbandry Information Management and Policy unit (FAAHM) in the Ministry of Agriculture and Animal Husbandry in July 2003, with US and German funding. The FAO runs several programs concerning food security, livestock, crops and seeds, forestry, and institution building, all in cooperation with ministries and local communities The FAO is also involved in veterinary services and the fight against avian flu in Afghanistan. Information on FAO budgets in Afghanistan is not available on any FAO websites.
FAO Afghanistan website: http://www.fao.org/world/afghanistan/proj_en.htm
FAO provides a good satellite map
of Afghanistan at:
WHO - World Health Organization
The WHO is involved in vaccinations and reporting diseases and other health problems in Afghanistan. WHO provides health information on Afghanistan at: http://www.who.int/countries/afg/en/
UNHABITAT/UNHCS - The United Nations Human Settlements Program
UNHABITAT was formed in 1978 with a vision to alleviate the problems associated with mass urbanization. It is a development agency, focused on poverty reduction and sustainability. UNHABITAT has been in Afghanistan since 1991. It worked with communities during the Taliban years to foster democratic methods of governance. This was called the Community Forums Programme. UNHABITAT works with the Ministry of Urban Development and Housing. UNHABITAT drew on its lessons from the Community Forums programs to draft the National Solidarity Programme (NSP), the Afghan government's principle community development/project implementation program. The NSP will be coordinated with the Ministry of Rural Reconstruction and Development. UNHABITAT works with municipal governments as well to conduct projects to improve urban infrastructure. This is done in partnership with various NGOs and civil organizations. In 2003, US$15 million was spent on infrastructure projects. One key project was a Municipal Solid Waste Management Programme. This involved waste collection, education and awareness, and disposal.
UNHABITAT Afghanistan website: http://www.unhabitat.org/Afghanistan/default.asp
UNIFEM - United Nations Women's Fund
UNIFEM began operations in Afghanistan in early 2002, consulting with Afghan women to formulate its strategy. Its goal is to increase options and opportunities for women through making overall development more equitable. The two principle aims are to strengthen capacity and leadership of women's networks and gather political and financial support for women. This is done by supporting capacity-building in the Ministry of Women's Affairs (MOWA) and supporting other women's groups. Protocols have been arranged with the ministries of education, health, commerce, planning, and justice to ensure mainstreaming of gender into their areas of operations. Women's Development Centres have been established at the provincial and community levels. Working with NGOS, they provide literacy and health education, computer skills and English training, and income generation workshops. Seven of these centres have been opened as of March 2006. UNIFEM also works to promote women in the Afghan media, and to raise awareness of women's rights and violence against women. To this end, UNIFEM works with UNESCO, MOWA, and the Ministry of Information and Culture. Principle donors include Italy, Japan, Denmark, Finland, the USA, the Netherlands, Ireland, and Belgium. UNIFEM efforts have resulted in President Karzai announcing an inter-ministerial Task Force to Eliminate Violence Against Women (VAW) on 6 June 2005. Support for this initiative came from the government of Italy. There are currently about 30 UNIFEM staff members in Afghanistan. In March 2005 UNIFEM began publishing the newsletter "Gender Advocacy in Afghanistan."
UNESCO - United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
UNESCO formed the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding of Afghanistan's Cultural Heritage in 2002. It works to protect sites like the Minaret of Jam and the Bamian statues, and also supports the restoration of the Kabul museum. UNESCO provides literacy training and scientific training, and also supports NGOs involved in recovering cultural artifacts removed from the country.
UNESCO Afghanistan website:
UNODC - United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The UNODC cooperates with the Afghan government's Ministry of Counter Narcotics to maintain an opium monitoring system and to conduct annual opium surveys. It conducts the annual surveys using satellite imagery and ground surveys. UNODC runs several other projects besides monitoring, including a drug demand reduction training program for women in refugee camps in Pakistan, training and capacity-building with the Counter Narcotics Directorate, infrastructure activities as an alternative to opium cultivation, and training a drug law enforcement unit. A list of projects and updated publications by UNODC are available on the UNODC website.
UNODC Afghanistan website: http://www.unodc.org/afg/en/country_profile.html
UNEP - United Nations Environment Program
UNEP aided the passing of crucial
legislation designed to protect the environment in January
2006. As 80% of Afghans rely on natural resources for their
livelihoods, this was an important contribution. Called
the Environment Act, it provides for sustainability and
laws that allow the government to enforce the Act.
UNEP also conducted the Post-Conflict Environment Assessment
and Capacity Building Programme, and published the "Afghanistan
Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment" in 2003. Canada
provided nearly a third of the funding required for the
Post-Conflict Environmental Assessment with a contribution
of €248,020. UNEP worked
with the Ministry of Irrigation, Water Resources and Environment's
(MIWRE) National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)
on that project. The project was started in 2002, after
the Emergency Loya Jirga.
Since the report, at the request of the MIWRE UNEP has been
working on increasing the capacity of the Department of
Environment. UNEP provides training to NEPA personnel, gives
technical assistance and advice on an as-needed basis, and
supplies office and field equipment, while NEPA is the final
decision-making body. UNEP works to improve assessment and
enforcement, and is working to develop educational programs
at Kabul University and Kabul Polytechnicum to train environmental
experts. The UNEP Capacity
Building and Institutional Development Programme for Environmental
Management was launched on 28 October 2003. The purpose
of the program is to develop a stand-alone NEPA. The program
is now expected to continue until 2008. Funding was received
from the European Commission, the Government of Finland,
and the Global Environment Facility.
Information can be obtained through
UNEP publications, available at:
UNHCHR - United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
Rather than a separate unit dedicated to human rights, UNHCHR is manifested through a senior human rights advisor posted to the office of the SRSG. Human rights principles are integrated in all of the operations of UNAMA. There are two pillars of human rights activities. The first is monitoring investigation, and community liaison. The second pillar is human rights education, institution building, and humanitarian protection.
UNHCHR Afghanistan website: http://afghanistan.ohchr.org/ (Only limited information is available.)
UNMACA - United Nations Mine Action Centre for Afghanistan
This organization is responsible for planning, coordinating, and implementing mine action on behalf of the government of Afghanistan. The organization works in cooperation with NGOs, government ministries, and donor agencies.
UNMACA does not maintain a website. Some information is available on the Landmine Monitor website at: http://www.icbl.org/lm/2004/appendices/unmas#Heading24602
UNOPS - United Nations Office for Project Services
UNOPS operates as a contract organization
within the UN system. While functioning similar to a private
contractor, UNOPS does not earn a profit for its services.
In Afghanistan, UNOPS implements and manages development
projects in cooperation with other UN agencies, the Afghan
government, and international donors. UNOPS currently has
300 international and 200,000 national staff in Afghanistan.
Since 2002, it has been redirected as a service provider
for the Afghan government and UN agencies.
UNOPS manages development projects from start to finish
or as needed. It hires personnel, procures goods, organizes
training, manages financial resources, administers loans,
and more. Funding for UNOPS activities comes from fees charged
for its services. On average, UNOPS manages 25 major projects
and over 1,000 sub-projects. The estimated value of these
projects and associated labour is US$600 million.
UNOPS also implements quick-impact projects for PRTs, in
cooperation with the International Organization for Migration,
the US military, and with funding from USAID. Thirty-five
projects have been completed so far, with another 39 underway.
UNFPA - United Nations Population Fund for Afghanistan
"UNFPA supports countries in using population data for policies and programmes to reduce poverty and to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, every young person is free of HIV/AIDS, and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect." UNFPA has been active in Afghanistan since the late 1970s in the areas of population and reproductive health/family planning. Since September 2001 UNFPA activities have focused on three core areas: reproductive health, women's issues/gender, and population census. In 2003, UNFPA shifted its focus from humanitarian assistance to a developmental approach. Examples of UNFPA activities include the rehabilitation of three hospitals in Kabul, supporting reproductive health services in under-served areas, using the media to promote change, rehabilitation of the Ministry of Women's Affairs Vocational Training Centre and offices, and income generation projects for women. UNFPA also places technical experts in related ministries. Detailed information of its project activities, under the title of "Country Program Action Plan," can be found online at http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/program.html. This plan is for the period 2006-2008. UNFPA proposes a budget of US$52 million for this period, with $15.4 million going to reproductive health projects, $4.5 to gender-related projects, $31.5 million going to population and development projects, and $0.6 million going to programme coordination.
UNFPA Afghanistan website: http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/about.html
UNIDO - United Nations Industrial Development Organization
The mission of UNIDO is to provide "tailor-made solutions for the sustainable industrial development of developing countries and countries with economies in Transition." UNIDO has developed a Country Service Framework plan for 2005-2008. This plan will assist the Afghan government to develop the Ministry of Mines and Industry (MMI), provide technical assistance for the rehabilitation of factories, encourage private enterprise, and help poor rural communities to engage in viable farming to reduce their dependence on relief aid. The Country Service Framework plan is divided into two components. The first is based on creating an environment favourable to industrial development through advising the MMI on industrial policy, addressing unfavourable investment climates caused by too heavy bureaucratic structures, and promoting domestic trade. The second component comprises, among other things, direct assistance to the poor to stimulate the economy and reconstruction, providing small-business assistance programs, and construction training and assistance for farmers.
Information on UNIDO projects and
project budgets can be found at: http://www.unido.org/data/country/project.cfm?c=AFG
UNCCD - United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
Afghanistan is a signatory to this convention, signed in 1995. The purpose of the Convention is to develop unified strategies to combat desertification with sustainable development. Desertification is a growing problem due to overgrazing and deforestation. Recently, UNCCD provided the Ministry of Agriculture US$49,000 to collect information and documents, organize a national conference, and hire a consultant for the creation of a medium-sized project in Afghanistan.
UNCCD website: http://www.unccd.int/main.php (Updated regularly, but contains little Afghanistan information. However it provides a point of contact with the Ministry of Agriculture Representative.)
UNJLC - United Nations Joint Logistics Centre
UNJLC provides support to cooperating agencies in the form of logistics planning and coordination. It primarily operates in crisis areas. It ceased operations in Afghanistan on 31 March 2003.
UNJLC Afghanistan website: http://www.unjlc.org/tools/afghanistan/root/index.htm
Related Non-UN Agencies:
IOM - International Organization of Migration
The IOM has been in Afghanistan for twelve years. Since 2001, IOM had helped 430,000 displaced persons return to their homes, as of March 2005. Working with the Ministry of Refugees and Repatriation, IOM has programs to facilitate return. Examples of such programs are the IDP Return and Reintegration Assistance Program, The Return of Qualified Afghans Program (which seeks to draw Afghans living in the EU back to Afghanistan), and the reintegration component of DDR in northern Afghanistan. IOM implements quick-impact projects for PRTs, funded by USAID. The focus is on small infrastructure projects. IOM also works with USAID on a Schools and Clinics Construction and Refurbishment program. IOM works with the ministries of Women's Affairs, Justice, and Interior on counter-trafficking initiatives. IOM also has an Afghan Transition Initiative (ATI) to help increase the Afghan government's responsiveness to citizens' needs, increase citizen awareness and participation in the democratic process, and increase the capacity of the Afghan media. The ATI is funded by USAID. So far US$33,000,000 has been handed out in 558 grants for various projects. IOM relies on a fleet of 50 trucks and 25 light escort vehicles in its transportation activities. It works closely with UNHCR to accomplish this. To help make the journey easier and safer, IOM operates three transit centres where returnees can get a warm meal and spend a safe night. The IOM reintegration unit offers trade skills training, employment placement, grants for business start-ups, advice, and agricultural assistance.
 UNFPA website, "Country Programme." http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/program.html Accessed March 27 2006.
 OCHA, "Afghanistan: UN assistance
mission to continue for a further year." 15 March 2006.
 Kofi Annan, "The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security: Report of the Secretary General." (18 March 2002) 15. http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm
 United Nations Association of the United States of America website, "The UN role in post-conflict Afghanistan." (March 2004) http://www.unausa.org/site/pp.asp?c=fvKRI8MPJpF&b=328747
 Kofi Annan, "The Situation
in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace
and security; Emergency international assistance for peace,
normalcy, and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan."
A/60/712-A/2006/145 (7 March 2006): 13.
 UNDP, "United Nations Development
Program in Afghanistan." (2005): 4.
 UNDP, "Afghanistan: National
Human Development Report 2004." VI.
 UNDP Afghanistan website, http://www.undp.org.af/default.htm
 UNDP Afghanistan website, "Afghan civil servants to receive leadership training." (26 March 2006) http://www.undp.org.af/media_room/press_rel/2006_03_26_csc_leadership_train.htm
 Kofi Annan, "The situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security: Report of the Secretary General." (18 March 2002) 4. http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/reports/2002/sgrep02.htm
 Kofi Annan, "The Situation in Afghanistan and its implications for international peace and security; Emergency international assistance for peace, normalcy, and reconstruction of war-stricken Afghanistan." A/60/712-A/2006/145 (7 March 2006): 9. http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/sgrep06.htm
 UNDP, "Donor Contributions." http://www.undp.org.af/donor_relations/updates.htm
 UNHCR donor website. Figures are for 2005. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/partners?id=3b963b874
 UNHCR "Afghanistan Update."
 "UNICEF and Government of Afghanistan commit to Health, Education, and Protection of Women and Children." 27 February 2006 http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900SID/HMYT-6MER8S?OpenDocument
 Edward Carwardine "Afghanistan:
Looking back four years later." 1 Feb 2006
 "WFP urges world leaders
to focus on Afghanistan." 30 January 2006.
 World Food Program, "Protracted Relief and Recovery Operation- Afghanistan 10427.0" 30 September 2005. 4. http://www.wfp.org/operations/current_operations/project_docs/104270.pdf
 WFP website, "World Hunger- Afghanistan." http://www.wfp.org/country_brief/indexcountry.asp?country=004
 FAO Website for Afghanistan. http://www.fao.org/world/afghanistan/index_en.htm
 FAO Website for Afghanistan projects. http://www.fao.org/world/afghanistan/index_en.htm
 IRIN news, "Afghanistan:
Efforts Against Bird Flu Insufficient- FAO." (22 February
 UN-HABITAT website, "History." http://www.unhabitat.org/about/history.asp
 UN-HABITAT, "A New Era of Opportunity." http://www.unhabitat.org/Afghanistan/documents/brochure.pdf
 UN-HABITAT, "A New Era of Opportunity." http://www.unhabitat.org/Afghanistan/documents/brochure.pdf
 UNIFEM Afghanistan website. http://afghanistan.unifem.org/
 UNIFEM Afghanistan website. http://afghanistan.unifem.org/
 UNESCO website,
 UNODC, Government of Afghanistan, "Afghanistan: Opium Rapid Assessment Survey." February 2006: 3. http://www.unodc.org/pdf/research/Afg_RAS_2006.pdf
 UNODC country website for Afghanistan,
"UNODC Afghanistan Projects."
 "Environmental Legislation
Comes of Age in Afghansitan."
 UNEP, "Progress report on the Capacity Building and Institutional Development Programme for Environmental Management in Afghanistan 2003-2005." Kabul, January 2006: 22. http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/afg_PR_jan06.pdf
 UNEP, "Afghanistan's Environmental Recovery: A post-conflict plan for people and their natural resources." 1. http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/afg_folder.pdf
 UNEP, "Afghanistan's Environmental Recovery: A post-conflict plan for people and their natural resources." 2-3. http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/afg_folder.pdf
 UNEP, "Progress report on the Capacity Building and Institutional Development Programme for Environmental Management in Afghanistan 2003-2005." Kabul, January 2006: 4. http://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/afg_PR_jan06.pdf
 UNHCHR Afghanistan Website, "Background." http://afghanistan.ohchr.org/
 Landmine Monitor website, http://www.icbl.org/lm/2004/appendices/unmas#Heading24602
 UNOPS Afghanistan website, "Our Mission." http://www.unops.org.af/default.asp?aktion=1&sub=1 Accessed 27 March 2006.
 UNOPS Afghanistan website, "FAQ" http://www.unops.org.af/default.asp?aktion=1&sub=5 Accessed 27 March 2006.
 "IOM in Afghanistan Brochure."
 UNFPA website, "Our Mission." http://www.unfpa.org/about/index.htm
 UNFPA Afghanistan website, http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/about.html Accessed 27 March 2006.
 UNFPA, "United Nations Population Fund: "Country Programme for the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan." (September 2005) http://afghanistan.unfpa.org/Docs/cp2006.doc
 UNIDO website, "About UNIDO." http://www.unido.org/doc/3355
 UNIDO website, "Country Service Framework: Afghanistan." http://www.unido.org/en/doc/43899
 UNIDO website, "Country Service Framework: Afghanistan." http://www.unido.org/en/doc/43899
 UN News Centre, "Press Briefing by Ariane Quentier, senior public information officer, and by UN agencies in Afghanistan." (16 June 2005) http://www.un.org/apps/news/infocusnews.asp?NewsID=933&sID=1
 Email communication with Mustafa Jawad, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Livestock, and Food. 29 March 2006.
 "IOM in Afghanistan Brochure."
 IOM website for the Afghan Transition Initiative, http://www.iom.int/afghanistan/ati.htm
 IOM website for IDP Return and Reintegration, http://www.iom.int/afghanistan/idp.htm
 IOM website for Disarmament, Demobilization, and Reintegration. http://www.iom.int/afghanistan/ddr.htm