image  
  image  
     
 
image
image image image

image
image
iconDEVELOPMENT Updated December 31, 2009

Section Contents:  Overview

Overview

Sudan is the largest country in Africa, bordering nine countries and with a population of 37 million. Assistance and needs vary greatly across Sudan's diverse geography; from the humanitarian relief provided to the millions displaced in Darfur and the refugee communities in Eastern Sudan, to the recovery and development activities in Southern Sudan and the Three Protocol States. Sudan faces complex development challenges: enduring one of the longest running armed conflicts in the region, experiencing large inequality across its regions, and an economy that is heavily dependent on one resource: oil.

Ranked 150th out of 182 countries by the Human Development Report, Sudan has some of the lowest development indicators in the world, and poverty remains widespread. Estimated poverty rates are up to 90% in Southern Sudan and the Three Protocol States; in some regions clean water is available to only 1 in 4 and only 1 in 5 children complete primary school.   Development inequality between the different regions is stark, social development is uneven, and Millenium Development Goals indicators are low. For example, school enrolment rates in Northern Sudan have reached 64.3% whereas in Southern Sudan the rate is 30%.

Economic growth over the last few years has however been strong. Since the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005, Sudan's economy, with an average of 9% GDP growth, has become one of the fastest growing in Africa due to the expansion of its petroleum base. While agriculture represents the largest share of GDP, at roughly a third, foreign investment and rising domestic demand have spurred growth in the construction and service sectors.  Growth is, however, uneven across the sectors (see Comparative Statistics Sudan chart, p. 4), and Sudan lacks the political and economic institutions that can sustain and support rapid, pro-poor growth.  Consequently, the fiscal position in the post-CPA period has deteriorated and domestic debt has increased.

 

image
Figure 1.  Macroeconomic Situation in Sudan, presentation to the Sudan Consortium May 2008: IMF/UN and World Bank

 

Southern Sudan

Darfur

Khartoum and Northern Areas

National

Poverty

More than 90% of the population in Southern Sudan currently live on less than 1 dollar a day

Although chronic hunger in Southern Sudan has reduced, it still stands at 13.5%.

1.2 million vulnerable people in Southern Sudan are facing food insecurity a

nd are in need of food aid during 2008.

Chronic hunger in Darfur stands at 12%.

Chronic hunger in Khartoum and Northern Areas stands at 9%.

Countrywide estimates on poverty are in the range of 50-60%.

Chronic hunger nationwide stands at 11.3%.

Maternal Mortality

One out of seven women who become pregnant in Southern Sudan will die.

Only 10% of all deliveries in Southern Sudan are attended by any skilled personnel.

There are only 10 certified midwives in Southern Sudan.

46% of all deliveries in Darfur are attended by a nurse or midwife.

70% of all deliveries in Khartoum and Northern Areas are attended by any skilled personnel.

49% of all deliveries countrywide are attended by any skilled personnel.

Child Mortality

Although the infant mortality rate in Southern Sudan has decreased, it stands at 102 per 1000 live births.

Although the under-five mortality rate has decreased, one out of every 7 child will die before their fifth birthday (134 per 1000 live births).

The infant mortality rate in Darfur stands at 76 per 1000 live births.

The under-five mortality rate in Darfur Stands at 110 per 1000 live births.

The infant mortality rate in Khartoum and Northern Areas stands at 70 per 1000 live births.

The under-five mortality rate in Khartoum and Northern Areas stands at 104 per 1000 live births.

Countrywide, the infant mortality rate went down from 143 in 1990 to 83 in 2006.

The countrywide under-five mortality stands at 117per 1000 live births.

Immunisation

Southern Sudan has one of the lowest routine immunisation coverage rates in the world.

Only 17% of children are fully vaccinated.

Only 28% of children in Southern Sudan receive measles vaccination before t

heir first birthday.

29% of all children in Darfur are fully vaccinated.

56% of all children in Khartoum and the Northern Areas are fully vaccinated.

41% of all children countrywide are fully vaccinated.

Malaria

Malaria is considered hyper-endemic in Southern Sudan, accounting for more than 40% of all health facility visits

88% of households in Southern Sudan do not have an Insecticide-Treated Net.

81% of households in Darfur do not have an Insecticide-Treated Net.

77% of households in Khartoum and the Northern Areas do not have an Insecticide-Treated Net

7.5 million people are estimated to have malaria attacks every year across Sudan, with up to 35,000 of them dying from it

81% of households countrywide do not have an Insecticide-Treated Net.

HIV/AIDS

In 2007 the HIV/AIDS prevalence in Southern Sudan was estimated at 3.1%, but increasing

More than 70% of women aged 15-49 has no knowledge

about HIV prevention.

More than 63% of women aged 15-49 in Darfur has no knowledge

about HIV prevention

More than 54% of women aged 15-49 in Khartoum and Northern Areas has no knowledge

about HIV prevention

The national HIV/AIDS prevalence among adults aged 15-49 was 1.6 in 2002.

More than 56% of women aged 15-49 countrywide has no knowledge

about HIV prevention

Water and Sanitation

More than 50% of the population in Southern Sudan does not have access to improved drinking water.

Only 6.4% of the population use improved sanitation facilities.

More than 56% of the population in Darfur does not have access to improved drinking water.

Only 27% of the population use improved sanitation facilities.

42% of the population in Khartoum and the Northern Areas does not have access to improved drinking water.

41% of the population use improved sanitation facilities.

44% of the population countrywide does not have access to improved drinking water.

31% of the population use improved sanitation facilities.

Primary Education

Less than 50% of all children in Southern Sudan receive 5 years of primary school education.

While 1.3 million children are enrolled, only 1.9% completes primary school education.

For every 1,000 primary school students there is only one teacher

85% of adults in Southern Sudan do not know how to read or write.

93% of all children in Darfur receive 5 years of primary school education.

62% of adults in Darfur do not know how to read or write.

95% of all children in Khartoum and Northern Areas receive 5 years of primary school education.

44% of adults in Khartoum and Northern Areas do not know how to read or write.

90% of all children countrywide receive 5 years of primary school education.

64% of adults countrywide do not know how to read or write.

Gender

92% of women in Southern Sudan cannot read or write

Only 27% of girls in Southern Sudan are attending primary school.

A 15 year old girl has a higher chance of dying in childbirth than completing school.

62% of women in Darfur cannot read or write.

 

54% of women nationwide cannot read or write.

Displacement

Since January 2008, 187,000 people have been displaced by tribal and armed conflict in Southern Sudan.

Since January 2008, 310,000 people have been displaced by tribal and armed conflict in Darfur.

 

 

Figure 2: UNOCHA, Comparative Statistics Sudan, 2009

 

Sudan's Development Road Map

image
 


Joint Assessment Mission

As negotiations on the CPA were being finalised, the Government of Sudan, SPLM, World Bank, UN, IGAD and the IGAD partners` forum called for a donor conference to pledge funds for reconstruction. In preparation for this conference, and working together with the Government of Sudan and the SPLM, the World Bank and UN co-led a Joint Assessment Mission (JAM) of Sudan's recovery, reconstruction and development needs in 2004 and 2005. The year-long assessment exercise estimated total reconstruction and development needs for the period 2005 - 2007 of $4.3 billion in the North and $3.6 billion in Southern Sudan, with an additional $700 million for the three Areas.

Some have criticised the JAM process for an over-dependence on state-led development, a lack of focus on income guarantee and restitution schemes and the lack of a justice component. During the lessons learnt review jointly conducted by the UN and World Bank, the difficulties of coordination between Nairobi and Sudan and the lack of emphasis on early recovery planning and capacity building in Southern Sudan were highlighted. 

Multi Donor Trust Funds

The CPA specified that two Multi-Donor Trust Funds (MDTFs) be established to facilitate the coordination of external donor financing of Sudan's reconstruction and development needs in the South and North, respectively. The MDTF's are administered by the World Bank and primarily executed by the Governments of National Unity and Southern Sudan. The UN agencies are implementing partners of MDTF projects. All programmes submitted for MDTF financing are part of either the Government of National unity or the Government of Southern Sudan's development plan and are consistent with the priorities outlined in the JAM.  At the start of implementation, MDTF supported projects in Southern Sudan experienced major difficulties in reconciling the need for rapid delivery of results with the low absorption capacity on the ground, and the need to ensure adequate fiduciary controls and government ownership.


At a pledging conference held in Oslo, Norway, in April 2005, donors pledged over $508.15 million for the two MDTFs. The donors include The Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, European Commission, Sweden, Germany, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Iceland, and Greece. Since Oslo, 6 additional donors pledged $87.2 million.

 


Figure 5: Funding, project commitments and disbursement status.

As of January 2009, donors have contributed a total of $768 million to both the National and Southern Sudan MDTF. The National MDTF supports Government capacity building, reform of the judiciary, health, education, water and sanitation, infrastructure and development, livestock, introduction of the new currency and the census. Net donor contribution to the National MDTF is $266,929 million and disbursement is $101,420.  The Southern Sudan MDTF focuses on public works, transport and infrastructure, fiduciary system support, education, health and water provision, capacity building and private sector development. Donor contributions to the Southern Sudan MDTF are $500,771 and disbursement $167,873.

Sudan Consortium

The Sudan Consortium provides a forum to annually review progress in implementing the social and economic aspects of Sudan's 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The Consortium is jointly chaired by the Sudan Government of National Unity (GoNU) and the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), and organized by the UN and the World Bank. The structure grew out of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement. The first Consortium conference took place in Paris, March 2006, where participants reaffirmed an overall pledge of $4.5 billion for three years to support Sudan's recovery under the peace accord.

Subsequently, Sudan Consortium meetings were held in Khartoum, in May 2007, and in Oslo, in May 2008. A total of 45 international delegations representing donor countries, international organizations and civil society participated at the meeting. At the meeting, donors pledged USD 4.8 billion in total support to humanitarian, recovery and development efforts in the whole of Sudan, for the period 2008-2011. Part of the funds for development efforts will be channeled through two complementary mechanisms: the Multi Donor Trust Funds administrated by the World Bank which will receive an estimated US$650 million; and the newly created Sudan Recovery Fund for Southern Sudan, administered by the UN.

Current financing of the Joint Assessment Mission: The JAM estimated total costs of $7.9 billion for the first phase of CPA implementation (2005-2007) with an additional $0.7 billion for the three Areas. The JAM prioritised assistance to war-affected areas and the development of basic service provision rather than large scale infrastructure. In Southern Sudan, the largest components focused on new infrastructure, expansion of basic services, and institutional reform and capacity building.

 


The ability of donors to allocate significant funds for recovery and development activities has been constrained by the continued need for humanitarian aid throughout Sudan. The JAM assumed that humanitarian aid would gradually decline over time and that there would be a corresponding increase in aid for recovery and development. However, between 2005 and 2007, humanitarian aid continued to dominate overall aid to Sudan. Out of a total aid of $5.3 billion, nearly $4.3 billion was committed for humanitarian purposes and only $1.1 billion for recovery and development activities.

 

Figure 6: Adherence to Financial Obligations for the JAM Projects: Donors.

image

 

 

 
 
image image image image image

 

 

home